Shaker screen is one of the most important part of shale shaker. Its main function is to separate the mixture of drilling fluid and the solids from the holes. It comprises of a screen frame that can of steel or plastic material, screen mesh that resembles woven thread like structure and a binding material that binds the frame and the mesh.
The size of the solids that will be separated, depends on the size of the screen.
The two types of screen types are;
1) Hook Strip – It is available with metal lining of different sizes that matches with the screen mesh. Because of the accurate matching, screen life is greatly improved, decreasing the need to replace it frequently, thereby making it cost effective. It is also known as backing screen.
2) Pretensioned – It provides with greater capacity screening and improved screen life.
The quality of shaker screen depend on number of factors such as;
1) Material used for the Mesh:
– Most common material that is used for the screen is stainless steel. This stainless steel must be corrosion and rust resistant. Different manufactures use different qualities of steel for mesh and also their mesh weaving techniques are different.
2) Number of mesh layers:
– The greater the number of layers of the mesh, greater is its strength and durability. In another words, quality of a shaker screen can also be determined by the number of layers it has.
3) Screening Area:
– Quality can be compared on the basis of how large is the screening area that is amount of mixture that can be filtered in minimum possible time.
– Also, greater the screening area, the load on the mesh will be distributed more that will reduce the wear and tear of mesh, increasing its life.
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Solid control is a method to separate solids that are mixed while drilling. The solid control technique is a five stage technique. The solid control equipment that are used are Shale Shaker, Vacuum degasser, desilter, desander and centrifuge.
A shale Shaker is used in the first step because it separates the biggest solids that are present in the mixture. Here when the mud mixture is passed through the Shaker Screen (A mesh that separates the solids), filtered mud is obtained on the other side, in a mud tank. The size of separation of the mixture depends on the size of mesh used in the Shaker Screen.
A shale shaker comprises of the following parts;
– A feeder that is a type of pan into which the mixture is first fed.
– Screen that separates the mixture.
– A vibrator that is a device that gives vibratory force to the screen.
The two types of Shale Shakers are;
1) Shale shaker that works on the concept of Linear Motion: It is mainly used in oil and gas drilling. Its advantage is that it is fast and can handle heavy load.
2) Shale shaker that works on the concept of Balanced Elliptical motion: It has higher retention time than Linear Motion.
Functions of Shale Shaker:
– Its main function is to remove maximum solids from the mixture. This will not only improve the efficiency of the drilling machine, but will also reduce the load on the subsequent equipment.
– It minimizes the wastage that may be caused sometimes while separating the fluids from solids. This will save our precious natural resources.
– It’s another function is to separate the mixture in such a way that the fluid that is recovered can be reused efficiently and its quality is maintained.
Some examples of Shale shakers are;
– MONGOOSE PRO shale shaker that is equipped with dual motion technology and MD-2, Dual and triple Deck shale shaker that boasts of new innovative screen technology.
Drilling fluids are used while drilling holes on the surface of the earth for oil, natural gas and even for water wells. The different types of drilling fluids that are used are water, water based muds (mixture of water and clay or other chemicals), oil or synthetic oil.
The advantages of using drilling fluids are;
– Due to the continuous use of machines for long time, the machine get heated. These fluids helps in keeping the drilling machine cool.
– As there is continuous contact between the drill pipes and the walls of the holes, heat may be generated due to friction. Drilling fluids, especially oil based fluids provides lubrication to the drill pipes.
– Keeps the machine clean.
– Maintains pressure on formation fluids (naturally occurring fluids).
This drilling fluids are poured inside the hole with different flow rate and pressure. These fluids then collect the cuttings of rocks from the hole and are then forced out of the hole by a pump. This mixture is then passed through a shale shaker.
A shale shaker is an equipment that removes large solids that are mixed with the drilling fluids, drilling waste, so that the fluids can be reused. These shale shakers not only improve the efficiency but also is very important from the cost cutting point of view. The basic parts of a shale shaker are the base of the shaker called Hopper, a feeder where the mixture of fluid and solid is collected, a screen and a vibrator.
Shale shaker is a vibrating equipment that uses a Shaker Screen (a mesh like structure supported on a frame) to separate the mixture. The vibratory motion may either be linear, elliptical or circular. The efficiency of a shale shaker also depends upon the vibration speed and the amplitude and frequency of the shale shaker.
The main functions of shale shaker is to make the drilling fluids reusable by separating the solids that are mixed with it.