In the process of oil drilling drilling fluid from internal carotid out through shale shaker, then in other solids control equipment, in the solid phase removal equipment of shale shaker is itself a filterability spate separation equipment, in the mud of a complete set of cleaning system, it has the first, the characteristics of fast drilling fluid solid phase separation, at the same time is also a kind of economic, efficient spate separation equipment.
There are three types of mud shaker motion: circular, elliptical and linear motion, the oscillator in the center of gravity, will produce circular motion; When the oscillator is above the center of gravity of the system, elliptic motion is generated. However, for elliptic motion, the screen surface must have a slope in order to utilize the conveying cuttings, but the screen capacity will be reduced. The linear motion is to put the oscillator in front of the center of gravity of the system, making the screen frame produce linear motion, thus clearing the solid phase. The vibrating screen moves in a straight line with its fixed cuttings transfer speed. The screen surface can be flat or slightly tilted.
The ES series elliptic vibrating screen of KOSUN adopts the long tube vibrating motor as the power source, the performance is superior, the structure is reasonable, the operation is stable, the life is long, the maintenance cost is low. Under the same conditions, compared with other types of shaker, drilling mud processing capacity and sand transport and discharge capacity can be greatly improved, and can effectively overcome the “screening”, “screening paste” phenomenon.
KOSUN LS series linear vibrating screen using the vibration motor excitation to cheer for the vibration source, make the material being thrown up on screen, at the same time, forward a straight line with low consumption, high output, simple structure, easy maintenance, fully closed structure, no dust overflow, and the advantages of automatic discharge, more suitable for assembly line, at the same time family newsletter QZS linear vibrating screen can also be adjusted through the AWD regulating series of solid separation effect.Linear vibrating screen has obvious advantages in the treatment of large displacement drilling fluid. In this condition, the strong excitation force output by the linear vibrating screen can quickly remove a large number of solid phases through efficient linear vibration trajectory, which can effectively remove large particles in the drilling fluid.
The separation size of shale shaker depends on shaker screen size. We call it API size or mesh size. The API defers from API 20 to API 325 per API RP13 standard.Through changing different API size shaker screen, the shale shaker can separate solids size min. above 40μm (at API 325 shaker screen).
If you do not need to separate so fine solids, you can choose more fine shaker screen, like 800μm.The common screen API size for shale shaker is API60, API80, API100, API140, API160. Customer can choose the suitable size per drilling mud condition.
Shale shaker is the first stage separation equipment for oilfield drilling mud cleaning system. It utilizes vibrating motor to generate vibrating strength. The vibrating strength drives the drilling mud to go through the shale shaker. When the drilling mud goes through the shaker screen, clean mud will filter into mud tank. Not allowable bigger solids will pass the screen surface and be discharged.
KOSUN Linear motion shale shaker are ideal for high-capacity processing and the compact and easy-to-service design makes them a perfect choice for fast conveyance and heavy loading in tough drilling conditions.When drilling top-hole sections or while heavy-volume solids are encountered, in these intervals, shakers are required to generate high G-forces to effectively move high-capacity drilled solids across the screens.
–Balanced elliptical motion shale shaker. It is not recommended for oil and gas drilling since the flow capacity is big. If the mud flow is not equal, the motion of shaker will be changed. And performance will not be good. Mostly, professional users prefer linear motion for wide application.
KOSUN Balanced elliptical motion shale shaker are the best choice for max retention time and frequency for highly need of dryer drilled cuttings in light-loading drilling conditions.The unique balanced elliptical basket and easy-to-service design makes them a wonderful choice for reducing solids control operation cost.When faced with gentle light-loading drilling fluids, the ES shale shakers are required to reduce G-forces and maintain longer screen residence time, this results in drier solids,better drilling fluid recovery, longer screen life andreduced operating costs. (Editor:Kosun Lily.Wang)
In China oil drilling fluids solids control industry, KOSUN is a pioneer and leader, we has been providing solids control equipment for more than 20 years, the products include shale shaker,shale shaker screen, desander, desilter, vacuum degasser, centrifugal pump, submersible slurry pump, shear pump, mud agitator, mud gun, drilling fluids mud cleaner, decanter centrifuge, jet mud mixer, mud tank, diesel tank, water tank and complete solids control system, etc.
Drilling fluids shale shaker is a kind of filterable mechanical separation equipment, compared with other mechanical solids control equipment, its unit cost is kinda of economic. And it is a highly efficient separation equipment which obtains solid removal amount. Drilling fluids shale shaker is made of screen body, machine rack and gearing. Accordingly, mechanical vibration will make solid phase which is bigger than screen hole and the adhesive attraction will screen the solid phase particles which is smaller than screen hole. But all mud can’t be processed in circulating process because of the limit of shale shaker mud permit.
Usually the material of drilling fluids shale shaker is stainless knitted. Usually this kind of screen uses mesh to express the specification. Mesh is the number of screen holes, for example, a square screen that has 12 holes is called 12-mesh screen. Screen with a special outfit screen holder will screen into flake tension type fixed on the screen frame. Screen body is fixed to the rack based on spiral spring, and rubber articles’ bumper adopts the bottom-fixed type.
Oil Rig Shaker Screen Frame-Much like a canvas for painting a screen has to be supported on a frame in order to do its job, this frame differs between manufacturers in both material and shape. Screen frames can be made from materials, such as, square steel tubing, flat steel sheets, plastic type composites or they can just be supported on the ends with strips of steel ( similar idea to a scroll ). These frames consist of a rectangular shaped outer perimeter which is divided into small individual inner panels. These smaller panels differ in shape from manufacturer to manufacturer and have been known to come in shapes such as square, hexagonal, rectangular and even triangular.
These differing panel shapes are used in an attempt to reduce the quantity of panels on each frame but still provide maximum rigidity and support for the mesh attached to them. The purpose of reducing these panels is to maximize usable screening area as the walls of each panel get in the way of the mesh and prevent it from being used, this is known as “blanking”. The non-blanked screening area of a shaker screen is widely used as a selling point, the more screen surface you have available to work, the more efficient your shaker becomes and therefore can handle a higher quantity of fluid.
Screen Mesh-Just like thread is woven together to create cloth, metal wire can be woven to create a metal cloth. Screen Mesh has evolved over many years of competitive screen manufacturing resulting in very thin yet strong cloth designed to maximize screen life and conductance as well as to provide a consistent cut point. To increase the conductance of a mesh screen you have to minimize the amount of material in the way, this is done by either reducing the wire diameter or weaving the cloth to produce rectangular openings. Rectangular openings increase the screens conductance while minimizing the effect on its cut point where as square openings provide a more consistent cut point but offer a lower conductance.
To maximize screen life most manufacturers build their screens with multiple layers of mesh over a very sturdy backing cloth to further protect the cloth against solids loading and wear. The multiple layers of mesh act as a de-blinding mechanism pushing near sized particles, which may get stuck in the openings, out of the mesh reducing blinding issues and keeping the screen surface available for use.
Binding Agent-The binding agent is the material used to bind the mesh to the screen frame, it is designed to maximize adhesion to both materials while being able to handle high heat, strong vibration, abrasive cuttings and corrosive drilling fluids.
Plastic composite screens tend not to use adhesives but rather heat the mesh and melt it into the screen frame to form a bond.
3D Screen Technology-One of the more recent advances in oilfield screen technology has brought us the “3D screen”, this technology is an innovative method for increasing the screening area of a shale shaker without the need to build larger machines. When seen from the side, these screens look like corrugated cardboard, having a flat bottom and wavelike shapes on top. These waves are designed to increase the surface area of the screen panel by building up instead of out, thereby maximizing the surface area of the screen without the need to build larger shaker screens and in turn larger, heavier and more expensive shakers.
Shale shaker is a very important equipment that is used in the first stage separation of drilling liquids and the solid materials obtained from drilling oil, gas or water wells. This shale shaker consists of a shaker screen that does the separation process.
Brandt Shaker Screen comes in various types and different mesh sizes. Its two main types are the hook type and pretension type. Also the amount and the size of the solid that will get separated depends upon the size of the mesh.
Because of its importance, it is very important that the shaker screen is cleaned regularly. Cleaning it regularly will increase its efficiency and will delay the wear and tear of the mesh.
Various methods of cleaning the screen are;
1) Self Cleaning:
– This methodology involves the use of small folded or creased wires.
– These wires are arranged on a surface in such a way that small gaps are created resulting in a mesh like structure. This is usually supported using Support bars so that they are free to vibrate. These vibrations prevent the blocking or jamming of the mesh.
2) Water based cleaning:
– In this method a high pressure water pipe is used that cleans the screen by pouring water on it at a very high speed. This is a very traditional method that cleans the screen when less cleaning is required.
3) Screen cleaning machines:
– These machines are fully enclosed machines. The screen is placed inside this machine where a powerful water gun, releasing water at a very high pressure, is used that cleans the screen.
– The advantage of this machine is that it is fully automatic and no effort is needed at the workers part.
– Also this machine reduces the time required for cleaning a screen there by increasing the overall cost effectiveness.
Shale Shaker Screen happens to be the most dynamic part of the shale shaker equipment, as this performs the most important part of separating the solid waste from fluid in a drilling process. At the same time it is the most vulnerable part of the equipment also because it constantly deals with solid particles and chemical rich fluid that makes it prone to wear and tear easily.
The basis of differentiation among various types of shake shaker screen remains to be their conductance. The manufacturers apply their innovation in shapes and designs to improve it’s performance. A few common types of shale shaker screens out there are –
A flat screen type is the most common and traditional type of the shaker screens that could be mounted to most of the shale shakers. A flat shaker screen is also very cost effective. This contains the steel panels that are bound together by steel plank.
Pyramid screens are an improvised version of flat screens. A pyramid screen effectively increases the screening area without the need of changing the structure of the shaker. With help of more screening area the fluid quantity increases and results in better
Metal Framed & Composite Framed Screen
Shaker Screens are usually metal framed and that standard is widely accepted in the industry. Composite frames are an extended version of the screen frames and since the introduction of composite frames, it has become quite popular among contractors due to their light weight and durability.
Hook Strip Screen
The hook strip screen comes in variations of sizes and designs and is used for straining and sieving etc. The mesh is secured with the help of clamping rails and the tension is applied with the help of woven wire cloth referred to as a hook strip.
Shaker Screens are the wear part of shale shaker, mainly classified into soft sieve screen, sieve plate type screen,and frame plate type screen.
The American Petroleum Institute is a trade association in the oil and natural gas industry in US. API works in collaboration with number of stake holders in the industry for the betterment of the industry.
It also conducts research and help in standardizing the industrial practices. One such guideline related to drilling industry was the standardization of criteria for solids separation. It mainly attributes to the size of shaker screens across the industry that determines the quality of fluid.
The purpose of this standardization was to simplify the screen selection process and provide the users with the screens that will make the solid separation process more efficient.
The API first came up with a Recommended Practice of drilling fluid processing system evaluation (RP 13C & E). Which was also approved by ISO 13501. This RP 13 C broadly covers the tests that describe the openings on the screen of a shale shaker screen in comparison of known standards. It should be considered that this test only describes the openings in the shaker screen but doesn’t talk about its performance.
Conformity to API standards by a manufacturer by providing the information on the labels will help the users determine their choice in best manner. A buyer will use his discretion as to which screen to use to get best conductance or increased life and so on and so forth.
Based on the standardized labeling of shale shaker screens the buyers are likely to make a more informed decision as to what is likely to work for their needs without leaving it guess-work.
Now as it happens with any change process, not all companies might embrace the system and continue to resist, while others do label the screens with the new standards. It is the end users prerogative to ask the manufacturer to provide the test related data for the screen that they intend to purchase.
Shale screen and Shale shaker are critical in the drilling process. Despite this, the shaker screens are delicate and prone to damage by drilling solids which occasionally break them. Having equipment that meets the industry standards and maintaining it well is inescapable.
What use is there in having a good equipment that you cannot install? Due to the crucial role they play in the solid control process, understanding how to install the shaker screen is critical.
Perhaps when you first purchased, the screen was already installed in the equipment. However, because the screen is fragile and gets damaged in the course of working, it requires occasional replacement and re-installation. The steps outlined below have been incorporated with general observances that equipment users are familiar with. They will guide you about how to install a shaker screen.
i. As soon as it is damaged shut down the equipment, close the feeder and provide tag.
ii. Use your hands or appropriate tools to uninstall the screen.
iii. Clean the screens in the drilling mud using water.
iv. Transfer drilling solids from the shale shaker by using the centrifugal sand pump and the shear pump to cut the drilling solids into smaller sizes to ease transportation.
v. Extract the screen from the equipment.
vi. Put the screen carefully on the table. Tighten the screen carefully using screws. For multiple-layered screens go, through the process again for each of the layers of screen.
vii. Bolt the screen on the side with the locating bar with the cuttings outfall on the outside and plug it into the generator trailer.
Your shaker screen is now installed and you are ready to resume work. Remember that much as it is imperative for the user to know how to install the screen, choosing the screen that meets industry standards is as paramount.
Shaker screens come in variety of sizes and shapes based upon shale shaker’s make and model. A Rectangular Heavy Duty Shaker Screen is mainly used for handling heavy solid drilling cuttings taken out during oil field drilling projects.
Drilling as such is widely used not only in oil and gas industry but in mining and coal cleaning industries also. Wherever the project demands handling heavy duty drilling waste management system , rectangular heavy duty shaker screens are deployed for use.
The main purpose of using shale shaker equipment is to separate out the drilling fluid from drilling solids i.e. drilling cuttings.
A Rectangular Heavy Duty Shaker screen uses two layers of finely knitted mesh material and one layer of a coarse mesh to enable the handling of the heavy duty solid waste to provide it better durability and better conductance. There had been number of incidents where during the solid control system process, while shale shaker was deployed to separate drilling cuttings from drilling fluid, some thicker parts of solid would get stuck in the circulation and make their way through multiple layers of mesh of the shaker screen and over time burst the shaker screen’s mesh cloth. To prevent such incidents, rectangular heavy duty shaker screens came into existence.
RHD shaker screens follow proprietary multi layered technology, that enhances the overall permissibility of drilling fluid through the screen with much less resistance, which naturally enhances the performance of shale shaker equipment.
The shaker screens in RHD line are available in different variations, based on the particulate size they allow to permit through and these are standardized by the America Petroleum Institute through their labeling practice. API has labeled different shaker screens based on the holes size distribution measured with the help of light.
As the technology advances, the drilling industry is all set to go through much more modernized with start to finish automation.
Shaker Screens is a critical component in solids control equipment used in the drilling industry. Drilling operations use a borehole technology to penetrate deep beneath the surface to reach the fossil fuel, in this pursuit, the mud-loggers first need to do a sampling to ascertain the depth and quality of the rock they are penetrating.
In oil field digging, let’s suppose in an off-shore site, this drilling will be done with the help of a drilling rig. As the drilling bit will cut through the rock underneath the ocean floor, it will need some lubricant to keep it going, a drilling fluid is used for that purpose.
A drilling fluid is a rich mixture of different chemicals, either oil-based or water-based, this is commonly known as “drilling mud”. This drilling mud is very expensive to create, and it doesn’t only keep the equipment lubricated but also helps in keeping it cool and clean for further operations.
The drilling bit will carry with itself drilling cuttings, essentially the rock shavings, mixed with drilling mud. The mud-loggers will extract these shavings from the drilling bit for further analysis.
As explained earlier in the article, the drilling fluid is quite expensive so it is imperative for the operators to restore the drilling fluid from the drilling waste. For this purpose, various solid control types of equipment are used, among them a shale shaker is the foremost.
A shale shaker with the help of shaker screens helps separate the drilling cuttings from drilling fluid, and the separated drilling fluid is channeled to a separate container for further processing and treatment. The dried solid, i.e. drilling cuttings are conveyed to a separate container for further treatment and disposal.
One very important factor in the solid control system is its contribution to environmental balance. If a solid control system is not efficient enough, it is likely that the drill cuttings will still carry some amount of drilling fluid that contains chemicals that could be really harmful to the environment and cause contamination of soil or groundwater. The drilling industry follows strict rules on drilling waste management for the sake of environmental impact.
In conclusion, a shale shaker’s main function is to filter the drilling waste with the help of effective shaker screens and as a result help in the economy of overall drilling operations and environmental prevention.
Shale shaker screen sizes is decided by shaker screens. Different shale shaker screens have different shale shaker screen sizes.
American Petroleum Institute has laid down the guidelines for solid control systems in drilling industry. However, the main purpose of this standardization was to provide the end user with a fair idea of what they are investing their money into, when the purchase a certain type of shaker screen.
Now, before we delve into the benchmarking by API, let us give you an overview of what the shaker screen is or why is it that important to be researched about?
Drilling is widely used activity in oil and gas industry, to obtain deep seated fossil fuel to fulfill the fuel requirement across the globe, and that makes this industry quite enormous. The drilling operations are carried out on hard ground surface or on the ocean surface. In the entire drilling process, one of the main challenges is the handling of the drilling waste, it is called solid control system. The most important but easy to missed part is the shale shaker screen sizes application in real spot.
API being one of the largest trading group of US in drilling industry, has set up certain industry standards to test the quality of shaker screens, that are respected worldwide. Based on these tests, they have labeled different shaker screen sizes that approved by ISO, and encourage the shale shaker manufacturers like Kosun to use those labels on the product to enable the end user for a fair comparison before purchase.
While quality of different shaker screens cannot alone assure its performance, as the actual performance, in terms of conductance and life, will depend on a variety of aspects. To name a few – Handling of shaker screen, installation and replacement, appropriate tensioning, deck rubbers, storage and cleaning, volume of mud and solids, etc.